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The English Tense System

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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 19:57 Post subject: The English Tense System

Simple Present Tense
I sing

How do we make the Simple Present Tense?
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb

How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?
The structure of the present continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
be base + ing

How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?

The structure of the present perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
have past participle

Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been singing

How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?
The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is
:

subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
have
has been base + ing

How do we make the Simple Past Tense?
To make the simple past tense, we use:

past form only
or

auxiliary did + base form
Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs:

The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is:

subject + main verb
past

The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb
did base

The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is:

auxiliary verb + subject + main verb
did base

The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc). And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main verbs go and work:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I went to school.
You worked very hard.
- She did not go with me.
We did not work yesterday.
? Did you go to London?
Did they work at home?

Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples:

subject main verb
+ I, he/she/it was here.
You, we, they were in London.
- I, he/she/it was not there.
You, we, they were not happy.
? Was I, he/she/it right?
Were you, we, they late?

How do we make the Past Continuous Tense?
The structure of the past continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
conjugated in simple past tense present participle
was
were base + ing

For negative sentences in the past continuous tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I was watching TV.
+ You were working hard.
- He, she, it was not helping Mary.
- We were not joking.
? Were you being silly?
? Were they playing football?

How do we make the Past Perfect Tense?
The structure of the past perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb
conjugated in simple past tense past participle
had V3

For negative sentences in the past perfect tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect tense:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I had finished my work.
+ You had stopped before me.
- She had not gone to school.
- We had not left.
? Had you arrived?
? Had they eaten dinner?

When speaking with the past perfect tense, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I had I'd
you had you'd
he had
she had
it had he'd
she'd
it'd
we had we'd
they had they'd


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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 19:59 Post subject: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been singing

How do we make the Past Perfect Continuous Tense?
The structure of the past perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAVE + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
conjugated in simple past tense past participle present participle
had been base + ing

For negative sentences in the past perfect continuous tense, we insert not after the first auxiliary verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb
+ I had been working.
+ You had been playing tennis.
- It had not been working well.
- We had not been expecting her.
? Had you been drinking?
? Had they been waiting long?

When speaking with the past perfect continuous tense, we often contract the subject and first auxiliary verb:

I had been I'd been
you had been you'd been
he had
she had been
it had been he'd been
she'd been
it'd been
we had been we'd been
they had been they'd been

How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense?
The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. For example:

Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours.
Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived.
past present future
Ram starts waiting in past at 9am.
9 11

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


I arrive in past at 11am.

Here are some more examples:

John was very tired. He had been running.
I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.
Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well for a long time.
Had the pilot been drinking before the crash?
You can sometimes think of the past perfect continuous tense like the present perfect continuous tense, but instead of the time being now the time is past.

past perfect continuous tense present perfect continuous tense
had |
been |
doing |
>>>> | |
|
|
| |
|
|
| have |
been |
doing |
>>>> |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

past now future past now future

For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11am. Ram says to you:

"I am angry. I have been waiting for two hours."
Later, you tell your friends:

"Ram was angry. He had been waiting for two hours."


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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 20:00 Post subject: The English Tense System

Simple Future Tense
I will sing

The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future tense with the modal auxiliary will.

How do we make the Simple Future Tense?
The structure of the simple future tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + main verb
invariable base
will V1

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will open the door.
+ You will finish before me.
- She will not be at school tomorrow.
- We will not leave yet.
? Will you arrive on time?
? Will they want dinner?

When we use the simple future tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I will I'll
you will you'll
he will
she will
it will he'll
she'll
it'll
we will we'll
they will they'll

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we contract with won't, like this:

I will not I won't
you will not you won't
he will not
she will not
it will not he won't
she won't
it won't
we will not we won't
they will not they won't

How do we use the Simple Future Tense?
No Plan
We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:

Hold on. I'll get a pen.
We will see what we can do to help you.
Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking.

We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:

I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.
I think I will have a holiday next year.
I don't think I'll buy that car.
Prediction
We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:

It will rain tomorrow.
People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
Who do you think will get the job?
Be
When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Examples:

I'll be in London tomorrow.
I'm going shopping. I won't be very long.
Will you be at work tomorrow?


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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 20:01 Post subject: The English Tense System

Future Continuous Tense
I will be singing

How do we make the Future Continuous Tense?
The structure of the future continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
invariable invariable present participle
will be base + ing

For negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we insert not between will and be. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will be working at 10am.
+ You will be lying on a beach tomorrow.
- She will not be using the car.
- We will not be having dinner at home.
? Will you be playing football?
? Will they be watching TV?

When we use the future continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and will:

I will I'll
you will you'll
he will
she will
it will he'll
she'll
it'll
we will we'll
they will they'll

For spoken negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we contract with won't, like this:

I will not I won't
you will not you won't
he will not
she will not
it will not he won't
she won't
it won't
we will not we won't
they will not they won't

We sometimes use shall instead of will, especially for I and we.


How do we use the Future Continuous Tense?
The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. For example, tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm:

At 4pm tomorrow, I will be working.
past present future

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4pm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


At 4pm, I will be in the middle of working.

When we use the future continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples:

I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.
They won't be watching TV at 9pm tonight.
What will you be doing at 10pm tonight?
What will you be doing when I arrive?
She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.
We 'll be having dinner when the film starts.
Take your umbrella. It will be raining when you return.


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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 20:01 Post subject: Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense
I will have sung

The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future.

How do we make the Future Perfect Tense?
The structure of the future perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb
invariable invariable past participle
will have V3

Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:

subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will have finished by 10am.
+ You will have forgotten me by then.
- She will not have gone to school.
- We will not have left.
? Will you have arrived?
? Will they have received it?

In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together:

I will have I'll have I'll've
you will have you'll have you'll've
he will have
she will have
it will have he'll have
she'll have
it'll have he'll've
she'll've
it'll've
we will have we'll have we'll've
they will have they'll have they'll've

We sometimes use shall instead of will, especially for I and we.


How do we use the Future Perfect Tense?
The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:

The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
The train will have left when you arrive.
past present future
Train leaves in future at 9am.
9 9.15

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


You arrive in future at 9.15am.

Look at some more examples:

You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
"Mary won't be at home when you arrive."
"Really? Where will she have gone?"
You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but instead of your viewpoint being in the present, it is in the future:

present perfect tense future perfect tense
|
have |
done |
> | will |
have |
done |
> |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

past now future past now future


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derbal

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Joined: 31 Mar 2007
Posts: 86

PostPosted: 31st March 2007, 20:02 Post subject: Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been singing

How do we make the Future Perfect Continuous Tense?
The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
invariable invariable past participle present participle
will have been base + ing

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we insert not between will and have. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future perfect continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will have been working for four hours.
+ You will have been travelling for two days.
- She will not have been using the car.
- We will not have been waiting long.
? Will you have been playing football?
? Will they have been watching TV?

When we use the future perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I will I'll
you will you'll
he will
she will
it will he'll
she'll
it'll
we will we'll
they will they'll

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we contract with won't, like this:

I will not I won't
you will not you won't
he will not
she will not
it will not he won't
she won't
it won't
we will not we won't
they will not they won't

How do we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense?
We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the future. Look at these examples:

I will have been working here for ten years next week.
He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours


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mustafa oulaouaina

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Joined: 14 Oct 2007
Posts: 1
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PostPosted: 14th October 2007, 15:30 Post subject: The English Tense System

thnx

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Leegmoser

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Posts: 2

PostPosted: 10th November 2012, 08:11 Post subject: Crusher System Review

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